Risk assessment of uptake of trace elements through consumption of cereals: a pilot study in Yerevan, Armenia

Pipoyan D.,

Stepanyan S.,

Beglaryan M.,

Dorne J.L.C.M.





The study aimed to assess the dietary exposure and related human health risks associated with trace elements through the intake of staple cereals, including buckwheat, rice, and emmer. The contents of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Cereal consumption data were obtained through a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire amongst the Yerevan adult population. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Mo, Fe and Cu were 0.75-5.56 µg/kg, 1.21-6 µg/kg, 6.7-6.99 µg/kg, 50.6-111 µg/kg, 20-429 µg/kg, 2770-30500 µg/kg and 601-1720 µg/kg respectively. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of all studied trace elements did not exceed the health-based guidance values. The margin of exposure (MOE) values of Pb, Cd, Hg, and Mo for all clusters were above the threshold (>10 for Pb, Cd, and >100 for Hg, Mo) and therefore did not indicate a health concern. Meanwhile, in the case of Ni exposure, the MOE values for the second and third clusters of buckwheat consumption and for the third cluster of emmer consumption were below the threshold (<10) indicating that a human health risk cannot be excluded. Future work is proposed.