D. Pipoyan, S. Stepanyan, M. Beglaryana, S. Stepanyan, A. Mantovani; Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2020, 143, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111526
Malachite Green (MG) has a worldwide application in aquaculture as a therapeutic agent; however, its use in food producing animals is illegal, due to potential carcinogenicity and persistence of residues. This pilot study, the first conducted in Armenia, aimed to determine the concentration of MG residues in flesh of fish grown in artificial ponds of Armenia and conduct dietary exposure assessment to characterize possible health risks to consumers. Detection of MG residues, including the major metabolite leucomalachite, was carried out in 29 fish composite samples by ELISA. The results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. To determine fish consumption values, a food frequency questionnaire was used. Possible health risks were evaluated by calculating the Margin of Exposure (MOE) based on BMDL of 13 (neoplastic effects) and 6 (non-neoplastic effects) mg/kg bw. In 34.5% of the investigated fish samples MG residues exceeded the minimum required performance limit. For BMDL10 and BMDL0.5, the MOEs ranged 3.36E+06–3.37E+07 and 1.55E+06–1.55E+07, respectively. The MOE for neoplastic effects was more than 10,000 and for non-neoplastic effects was more than 100. The results do not indicate public health concerns. However, the results highlight issues concerning the illegal use of MG in Armenian aquaculture, which deserves further attention.
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